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./play.it 2.12: API, GUI and video games

./play.it 2.12: API, GUI and video games

./play.it is a free/libre software that builds native packages for several Linux distributions from DRM-free installers for a collection of commercial games. These packages can then be installed using the standard distribution-provided tools (APT, pacman, emerge, etc.).
A more complete description of ./play.it has already been posted in linux_gaming a couple months ago: ./play.it, an easy way to install commercial games on GNU/Linux
It's already been one year since version 2.11 was released, in January 2019. We will only briefly review the changelog of version 2.12 and focus on the different points of ./play.it that kept us busy during all this time, and of which coding was only a small part.

What’s new with 2.12?

Though not the focus of this article, it would be a pity not to present all the added features of this brand new version. ;)
Compared to the usual updates, 2.12 is a major one, especially since for two years, we slowed down the addition of new features. Some patches took dust since the end of 2018 before finally be integrated in this update!
The list of changes for this 2.12 release can be found on our forge. Here is a full copy for convenience:

Development migration

History

As many free/libre projects, ./play.it development started on some random sector of a creaking hard drive, and unsurprisingly, a whole part of its history (everything predating version 1.13.15 released on Mars 30th, 2016) disappeared into the limbs because some unwise operation destroyed the only copy of the repository… Lesson learned, what's not shared don't stay long, and so was born the first public Git repository of the project. The easing of collaborative work was only accidentally achieved by this quest for eternity, but wasn't the original motivation for making the repository publicly available.
Following this decision, ./play.it source code has been hosted successively by many shared forge platforms:

Dedicated forge

As development progressed, ./play.it began to increase its need for resources, dividing its code into several repositories to improve the workflow of the different aspects of the projects, adding continuous integration tests and their constraints, etc. A furious desire to understand the nooks and crannies behind a forge platform was the last deciding factor towards hosting a dedicated forge.
So it happened, we deployed a forge platform on a dedicated server, hugely benefiting from the tremendous work achieved by the GitLab's package Debian Maintainers team. In return, we tried to contribute our findings in improving this software packaging.
That was not expected, but this migration happened just a little time before the announcement “Déframasoftisons Internet !” (French article) about the planned end of Framagit.
This dedicated instance used to be hosted on a VPS rented from Digital Ocean until the second half of July 2020, and since then has been moved to another VPS, rented from Hetzner. The specifications are similar, as well as the service, but thanks to this migration our hosting costs have been cut in half. Keeping in mind that this is paid by a single person, so any little donation helps a lot on this front. ;)
To the surprise of our system administrator, this last migration took only a couple hours with no service interruption reported by our users.

Forge access

This new forge can be found at forge.dotslashplay.it. Registrations are open to the public, but we ask you to not abuse this, the main restriction being that we do not wish to host projects unrelated to ./play.it. Of course exceptions are made for our active contributors, who are allowed to host some personal projects there.
So, if you wish to use this forge to host your own work, you first need to make some significant contributions to ./play.it.

API

The collection of supported games growing endlessly, we have started the development of a public API allowing access to lots of information related to ./play.it.
This API, which is not yet stabilized, is simply an interface to a versioned database containing all the ./play.it scripts, handled archives, games installable through the project. Relations are, of course, handled between those items, enabling its use for requests like : « What packages are required on my system to install Cæsar Ⅲ ? » or « What are the free (as in beer) games handled via DOSBox ? ».
Originally developed as support for the new, in-development, Web site (we'll talk about it later on), this API should facilitate the development of tools around ./play.it. For example, it'll be useful for whomever would like to build a complete video game handling software (downloading, installation, starting, etc.) using ./play.it as one of its building bricks.
For those curious about the technical side, it's an API based on Lumeneffectuant that makes requests on a MariaDB database, all self-hosted on a Debian Sid. Not only is the code of the API versioned on our forge, but also the structure and content of the databases, which will allow those who desired it to install a local version easily.

New website

Based on the aforementioned API, a new website is under development and will replace our current website based on DokuWiki.
Indeed, if the lack of database and the plain text files structure of DokuWiki seemed at first attractive, as ./play.it supported only a handful of games (link in French), this feature became more inconvenient as the library of ./play.it supported games grew.
We shall make an in-depth presentation of this website for the 2.13 release of ./play.it, but a public demo of the development version from our forge is already available.
If you feel like providing an helping hand on this task, some priority tasks have been identified to allow opening a new Web site able to replace the current one. And for those interested in technical details, this web Site was developed in PHP using the framework Laravel. The current in-development version is hosted for now on the same Debian Sid than the API.

GUI

A regular comment that is done about the project is that, if the purpose is to make installing games accessible to everyone without technical skills, having to run scripts in the terminal remains somewhat intimidating. Our answer until now has been that while the project itself doesn't aim to providing a graphical interface (KISS principle "Keep it simple, stupid"), still and always), but that it would be relatively easy to, later on, develop a graphical front-end to it.
Well, it happens that is now reality. Around the time of our latest publication, one of our contributors, using the API we just talked about, developed a small prototype that is usable enough to warrant a little shout out. :-)
In practice, it is some small Python 3 code (an HCI completely in POSIX shell is for a later date :-°), using GTK 3 (and still a VTE terminal to display the commands issued, but the user shouldn't have to input anything in it, except perhaps the root password to install some packages). This allowed to verify that, as we used to say, it would be relatively easy, since a script of less than 500 lines of code (written quickly over a week-end) was enough to do the job !
Of course, this graphical interface project stays independent from the main project, and is maintained in a specific repository. It seems interesting to us to promote it in order to ease the use of ./play.it, but this doesn't prevent any other similar projects to be born, for example using a different language or graphical toolkit (we, globally, don't have any particular affinity towards Python or GTK).
The use of this HCI needs three steps : first, a list of available games is displayed, coming directly from our API. You just need to select in the list (optionally using the search bar) the game you want to install. Then it switches to a second display, which list the required files. If several alternatives are available, the user can select the one he wants to use. All those files must be in the same directory, the address bar on the top enabling to select which one to use (click on the open button on the top opens a filesystem navigation window). Once all those files available (if they can be downloaded, the software will do it automatically), you can move ahead to the third step, which is just watching ./play.it do its job :-) Once done, a simple click on the button on the bottom will run the game (even if, from this step, the game is fully integrated on your system as usual, you no longer need this tool to run it).
To download potentially missing files, the HCI will use, depending on what's available on the system, either wget, curl or aria2c (this last one also handling torrents), of which the output will be displayed in the terminal of the third phase, just before running the scripts. For privilege escalation to install packages, sudo will be used preferentially if available (with the option to use a third-party application for password input, if the corresponding environment variable is set, which is more user-friendly), else su will be used.
Of course, any suggestion for an improvement will be received with pleasure.

New games

Of course, such an announcement would not be complete without a list of the games that got added to our collection since the 2.11 release… So here you go:
If your favourite game is not supported by ./play.it yet, you should ask for it in the dedicated tracker on our forge. The only requirement to be a valid request is that there exists a version of the game that is not burdened by DRM.

What’s next?

Our team being inexhaustible, work on the future 2.13 version has already begun…
A few major objectives of this next version are :
If your desired features aren't on this list, don't hesitate to signal it us, in the comments of this news release. ;)

Links

submitted by vv224 to linux_gaming [link] [comments]

I can't install Percollate on Linux Mint 20 Ulyana. I know I could use wkhtmltopdf but I know from experience that Percollate is superior.

LONG POST WARNING - lots of code copied in the interest of clarity.

I tried running "npm i percollate" and after installing it gave:
npm WARN enoent ENOENT: no such file or directory, open '/home/name/package.json'
npm WARN name No description
npm WARN name No repository field.
npm WARN name No README data
npm WARN name No license field.
[email protected]:~$ npm i percollate
npm WARN deprecated [email protected]: request has been deprecated, see https://github.com/request/request/issues/3142
npm WARN deprecated [email protected]: request-promise-native has been deprecated because it extends the now deprecated request package, see https://github.com/request/request/issues/3142
npm WARN deprecated [email protected]: this library is no longer supported
- u/sindresorhus/is@0.14.0 node_modules/@sindresorhus/is
- [email protected] node_modules/ansi-regex
[email protected] node_modules/concat-stream/node_modules/safe-buffer -> node_modules/archiver-utils/node_modules/safe-buffer
string_[email protected] node_modules/concat-stream/node_modules/string_decoder -> node_modules/archiver-utils/node_modules/string_decoder
[email protected] node_modules/concat-stream/node_modules/readable-stream -> node_modules/archiver-utils/node_modules/readable-stream
- [email protected] node_modules/array-equal
- [email protected] node_modules/async-limiter
- [email protected] node_modules/buffer-from
- [email protected] node_modules/cacheable-request/node_modules/get-stream
- [email protected] node_modules/cacheable-request/node_modules/lowercase-keys
- [email protected] node_modules/cli-spinners
- [email protected] node_modules/clone
- [email protected] node_modules/color-name
- [email protected] node_modules/color-convert
- [email protected] node_modules/ansi-styles
- [email protected] node_modules/defaults
- [email protected] node_modules/defer-to-connect
- u/szmarczak/http-timer@1.1.2 node_modules/@szmarczak/http-timer
- [email protected] node_modules/duplexer3
- [email protected] node_modules/es6-promise
- [email protected] node_modules/es6-promisify
- [email protected] node_modules/escape-string-regexp
- [email protected] node_modules/fsevents
- [email protected] node_modules/get-stream
- [email protected] node_modules/has-flag
- [email protected] node_modules/http-cache-semantics
- [email protected] node_modules/json-buffer
- [email protected] node_modules/keyv
- [email protected] node_modules/lowercase-keys
- [email protected] node_modules/mimic-fn
- [email protected] node_modules/mimic-response
- [email protected] node_modules/clone-response
- [email protected] node_modules/decompress-response
- [email protected] node_modules/minimist
- [email protected] node_modules/mkdirp
- [email protected] node_modules/normalize-url
- [email protected] node_modules/nunjucks/node_modules/commander
- [email protected] node_modules/onetime
- [email protected] node_modules/os-tmpdir
- [email protected] node_modules/p-cancelable
- [email protected] node_modules/percollate/node_modules/agent-base
- [email protected] node_modules/percollate/node_modules/https-proxy-agent/node_modules/ms
- [email protected] node_modules/percollate/node_modules/https-proxy-agent/node_modules/debug
- [email protected] node_modules/percollate/node_modules/https-proxy-agent
- [email protected] node_modules/percollate/node_modules/ms
- [email protected] node_modules/percollate/node_modules/extract-zip/node_modules/debug
- [email protected] node_modules/percollate/node_modules/rimraf
- [email protected] node_modules/pn
- [email protected] node_modules/prepend-http
- [email protected] node_modules/resolve-url
- [email protected] node_modules/responselike
- [email protected] node_modules/cacheable-request
- [email protected] node_modules/signal-exit
- [email protected] node_modules/restore-cursor
- [email protected] node_modules/cli-cursor
- [email protected] node_modules/source-map-url
- [email protected] node_modules/strip-ansi
- [email protected] node_modules/supports-color
- [email protected] node_modules/chalk
- [email protected] node_modules/log-symbols
- [email protected] node_modules/to-readable-stream
- [email protected] node_modules/typedarray
- [email protected] node_modules/concat-stream
- [email protected] node_modules/percollate/node_modules/extract-zip
- [email protected] node_modules/urix
- [email protected] node_modules/url-parse-lax
- [email protected] node_modules/wcwidth
- [email protected] node_modules/got
- [email protected] node_modules/ora
- [email protected] node_modules/percollate/node_modules/puppeteer
/home/name
└─┬ [email protected]
├── u/mozilla/readability@0.3.0
├─┬ [email protected]
│ ├─┬ [email protected]
│ │ ├── [email protected]
│ │ ├─┬ [email protected]
│ │ │ └─┬ [email protected]
│ │ │ ├── [email protected]
│ │ │ └── string_[email protected]
│ │ ├── [email protected]
│ │ ├── [email protected]
│ │ ├── [email protected]
│ │ ├── [email protected]
│ │ └── [email protected]
│ ├── [email protected]
│ ├── [email protected]
│ └─┬ [email protected]
│ └─┬ [email protected]
│ └─┬ [email protected]
│ └── [email protected]
├── UNMET PEER DEPENDENCY [email protected]^2.5.0
├─┬ [email protected]
│ └── [email protected]
├── [email protected]
├─┬ [email protected]
│ ├── [email protected]
│ ├─┬ [email protected]
│ │ └── [email protected]
│ ├── [email protected]
│ ├─┬ [email protected]
│ │ └── [email protected]
│ ├── [email protected]
│ ├── [email protected]
│ ├─┬ [email protected]
│ │ └── [email protected]
│ ├── [email protected]
│ ├── [email protected]
│ ├── [email protected]
│ ├─┬ [email protected]
│ │ └── [email protected]
│ ├─┬ [email protected]
│ │ └── [email protected]
│ ├── [email protected]
│ ├─┬ [email protected]
│ │ └── [email protected]
│ ├── [email protected]
│ ├── [email protected]
│ ├─┬ [email protected]
│ │ ├── [email protected]
│ │ └── [email protected]
│ └── [email protected]
├── [email protected]
├── [email protected]
├─┬ [email protected]
│ └── [email protected]
├── [email protected]
├── [email protected]
└── [email protected]

npm WARN optional SKIPPING OPTIONAL DEPENDENCY: [email protected]~2.1.2 (node_modules/chokidanode_modules/fsevents):
npm WARN notsup SKIPPING OPTIONAL DEPENDENCY: Unsupported platform for [email protected]: wanted {"os":"darwin","arch":"any"} (current: {"os":"linux","arch":"x64"})
npm WARN enoent ENOENT: no such file or directory, open '/home/name/package.json'
npm WARN [email protected] requires a peer of [email protected]^2.5.0 but none was installed.
npm WARN name No description
npm WARN name No repository field.
npm WARN name No README data
npm WARN name No license field.

I have learned that Puppeteer is deprecated [???] and that I should apparently be using something called Playwright. I am befuddled, because Percollate works swimmingly on Elementary OS. I use Elementary on the one device I have because my family and I like the ease of use, but it runs poorly on this other device. As stated previously I despise wkhtmltopdf because it doesn't format websites well at all. I want to be able to download articles and recipes and things to read in the evenings, printed out.

When I run "percollate --version" I get:
0.8.0

Percollate is installed but its dependencies seem to have all broken and / or been abandoned ... on this computer. Is this because Mint Ulyana is Ubuntu 20? Isn't Elementary OS Hera also Ubuntu 20? I'm so lost, I'm relatively new to Linux and still incapable of fixing things like this on my own. I can't write code at all so I wouldn't be able to go about fixing Percollate myself if it truly is broken.

Is there at the very least a way to makewkhtmltopdf format websites nicely without loads of errors?

Sorry for the long post but I wanted to be thorough. Oh yes, I also ran "PUPPETEER_PRODUCT=firefox npm i puppeteer" and that didn't fix anything. This is what happens when I try to run "percollate pdf https://winstonchurchill.org/resources/speeches/1940-the-finest-houwe-shall-fight-on-the-beaches/":

Fetching: https://winstonchurchill.org/resources/speeches/1940-the-finest-houwe-shall-fight-on-the-beaches/
Enhancing web page... ✓
(node:4596) UnhandledPromiseRejectionWarning: Error: Could not find browser revision 782078. Run "PUPPETEER_PRODUCT=firefox npm install" or "PUPPETEER_PRODUCT=firefox yarn install" to download a supported Firefox browser binary.
at ChromeLauncher.launch (/uslocal/lib/node_modules/percollate/node_modules/puppeteelib/cjs/puppeteenode/Launcher.js:86:23)
(node:4596) UnhandledPromiseRejectionWarning: Unhandled promise rejection. This error originated either by throwing inside of an async function without a catch block, or by rejecting a promise which was not handled with .catch(). (rejection id: 1)
(node:4596) [DEP0018] DeprecationWarning: Unhandled promise rejections are deprecated. In the future, promise rejections that are not handled will terminate the Node.js process with a non-zero exit code.

Does anyone know anything that would help me?
submitted by JonathanWillard to linuxquestions [link] [comments]

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submitted by VFXALERT5 to u/VFXALERT5 [link] [comments]

Step-by-Step Guide for Adding a Stack, Expanding Control Lines, and Building an Assembler

After the positive response to my first tutorial on expanding the RAM, I thought I'd continue the fun by expanding the capabilities of Ben's 8-bit CPU even further. That said, you'll need to have done the work in the previous post to be able to do this. You can get a sense for what we'll do in this Imgur gallery.
In this tutorial, we'll balance software and hardware improvements to make this a pretty capable machine:

Parts List

To only update the hardware, you'll need:
If you want to update the toolchain, you'll need:
  1. Arduino Mega 2560 (Amazon) to create the programmer.
  2. Ribbon Jumper Cables (Amazon) to connect the Arduino to the breadboard.
  3. TL866 II Plus EEPROM Programmer (Amazon) to program the ROM.
Bonus Clock Improvement: One additional thing I did is replace the 74LS04 inverter in Ben's clock circuit with a 74LS14 inverting Schmitt trigger (datasheet, Jameco). The pinouts are identical! Just drop it in, wire the existing lines, and then run the clock output through it twice (since it's inverting) to get a squeaky clean clock signal. Useful if you want to go even faster with the CPU.

Step 1: Program with an Arduino and Assembler (Image 1, Image 2)

There's a certain delight in the physical programming of a computer with switches. This is how Bill Gates and Paul Allen famously programmed the Altair 8800 and started Microsoft. But at some point, the hardware becomes limited by how effectively you can input the software. After upgrading the RAM, I quickly felt constrained by how long it took to program everything.
You can continue to program the computer physically if you want and even after upgrading that option is still available, so this step is optional. There's probably many ways to approach the programming, but this way felt simple and in the spirit of the build. We'll use an Arduino Mega 2560, like the one in Ben's 6502 build, to program the RAM. We'll start with a homemade assembler then switch to something more robust.
Preparing the Physical Interface
The first thing to do is prepare the CPU to be programmed by the Arduino. We already did the hard work on this in the RAM upgrade tutorial by using the bus to write to the RAM and disconnecting the control ROM while in program mode. Now we just need to route the appropriate lines to a convenient spot on the board to plug the Arduino into.
  1. This is optional, but I rewired all the DIP switches to have ground on one side, rather than alternating sides like Ben's build. This just makes it easier to route wires.
  2. Wire the 8 address lines from the DIP switch, connecting the side opposite to ground (the one going to the chips) to a convenient point on the board. I put them on the far left, next to the address LEDs and above the write button circuit.
  3. Wire the 8 data lines from the DIP switch, connecting the side opposite to ground (the one going to the chips) directly below the address lines. Make sure they're separated by the gutter so they're not connected.
  4. Wire a line from the write button to your input area. You want to connect the side of the button that's not connected to ground (the one going to the chip).
So now you have one convenient spot with 8 address lines, 8 data lines, and a write line. If you want to get fancy, you can wire them into some kind of connector, but I found that ribbon jumper cables work nicely and keep things tidy.
The way we'll program the RAM is to enter program mode and set all the DIP switches to the high position (e.g., 11111111). Since the switches are upside-down, this means they'll all be disconnected and not driving to ground. The address and write lines will simply be floating and the data lines will be weakly pulled up by 1k resistors. Either way, the Arduino can now drive the signals going into the chips using its outputs.
Creating the Arduino Programmer
Now that we can interface with an Arduino, we need to write some software. If you follow Ben's 6502 video, you'll have all the knowledge you need to get this working. If you want some hints and code, see below (source code):
  1. Create arrays for your data and address lines. For example: const char ADDRESS_LINES[] = {39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53};. Create your write line with #define RAM_WRITE 3.
  2. Create functions to enable and disable your address and data lines. You want to enable them before writing. Make sure to disable them afterward so that you can still manually program using DIP switches without disconnecting the Arduino. The code looks like this (just change INPUT to OUTPUT accordingly): for(int n = 0; n < 8; n += 1) { pinMode(ADDRESS_LINES[n], OUTPUT); }
  3. Create a function to write to an address. It'll look like void writeData(byte writeAddress, byte writeData) and basically use two loops, one for address and one for data, followed by toggling the write.
  4. Create a char array that contains your program and data. You can use #define to create opcodes like #define LDA 0x01.
  5. In your main function, loop through the program array and send it through writeData.
With this setup, you can now load multi-line programs in a fraction of a second! This can really come in handy with debugging by stress testing your CPU with software. Make sure to test your setup with existing programs you know run reliably. Now that you have your basic setup working, you can add 8 additional lines to read the bus and expand the program to let you read memory locations or even monitor the running of your CPU.
Making an Assembler
The above will serve us well but it's missing a key feature: labels. Labels are invaluable in assembly because they're so versatile. Jumps, subroutines, variables all use labels. The problem is that labels require parsing. Parsing is a fun project on the road to a compiler but not something I wanted to delve into right now--if you're interested, you can learn about Flex and Bison. Instead, I found a custom assembler that lets you define your CPU's instruction set and it'll do everything else for you. Let's get it setup:
  1. If you're on Windows, you can use the pre-built binaries. Otherwise, you'll need to install Rust and compile via cargo build.
  2. Create a file called 8bit.cpu and define your CPU instructions (source code). For example, LDA would be lda {address} -> 0x01 @ address[7:0]. What's cool is you can also now create the instruction's immediate variant instead of having to call it LDI: lda #{value} -> 0x05 @ value[7:0].
  3. You can now write assembly by adding #include "8bit.cpu" to the top of your code. There's a lot of neat features so make sure to read the documentation!
  4. Once you've written some assembly, you can generate the machine code using ./customasm yourprogram.s -f hexc -p. This prints out a char array just like our Arduino program used!
  5. Copy the char array into your Arduino program and send it to your CPU.
At this stage, you can start creating some pretty complex programs with ease. I would definitely play around with writing some larger programs. I actually found a bug in my hardware that was hidden for a while because my programs were never very complex!

Step 2: Expand the Control Lines (Image)

Before we can expand the CPU any further, we have to address the fact we're running out of control lines. An easy way to do this is to add a 3rd 28C16 ROM and be on your way. If you want something a little more involved but satisfying, read on.
Right now the control lines are one hot encoded. This means that if you have 4 lines, you can encode 4 states. But we know that a 4-bit binary number can encode 16 states. We'll use this principle via 74LS138 decoders, just like Ben used for the step counter.
Choosing the Control Line Combinations
Everything comes with trade-offs. In the case of combining control lines, it means the two control lines we choose to combine can never be activated at the same time. We can ensure this by encoding all the inputs together in the first 74LS138 and all the outputs together in a second 74LS138. We'll keep the remaining control lines directly connected.
Rewiring the Control Lines
If your build is anything like mine, the control lines are a bit of a mess. You'll need to be careful when rewiring to ensure it all comes back together correctly. Let's get to it:
  1. Place the two 74LS138 decoders on the far right side of the breadboard with the ROMs. Connect them to power and ground.
  2. You'll likely run out of inverters, so place a 74LS04 on the breadboard above your decoders. Connect it to power and ground.
  3. Carefully take your inputs (MI, RI, II, AI, BI, J) and wire them to the outputs of the left 74LS138. Do not wire anything to O0 because that's activated by 000 which won't work for us!
  4. Carefully take your outputs (RO, CO, AO, EO) and wire them to the outputs of the right 74LS138. Remember, do not wire anything to O0!
  5. Now, the 74LS138 outputs are active low, but the ROM outputs were active high. This means you need to swap the wiring on all your existing 74LS04 inverters for the LEDs and control lines to work. Make sure you track which control lines are supposed to be active high vs. active low!
  6. Wire E3 to power and E2 to ground. Connect the E1 on both 138s together, then connect it to the same line as OE on your ROMs. This will ensure that the outputs are disabled when you're in program mode. You can actually take off the 1k pull-up resistors from the previous tutorial at this stage, because the 138s actively drive the lines going to the 74LS04 inverters rather than floating like the ROMs.
At this point, you really need to ensure that the massive rewiring job was successful. Connect 3 jumper wires to A0-A2 and test all the combinations manually. Make sure the correct LED lights up and check with a multimeteoscilloscope that you're getting the right signal at each chip. Catching mistakes at this point will save you a lot of headaches! Now that everything is working, let's finish up:
  1. Connect A0-A2 of the left 74LS138 to the left ROM's A0-A2.
  2. Connect A0-A2 of the right 74LS138 to the right ROM's A0-A2.
  3. Distribute the rest of the control signals across the two ROMs.
Changing the ROM Code
This part is easy. We just need to update all of our #define with the new addresses and program the ROMs again. For clarity that we're not using one-hot encoding anymore, I recommend using hex instead of binary. So instead of #define MI 0b0000000100000000, we can use #define MI 0x0100, #define RI 0x0200, and so on.
Testing
Expanding the control lines required physically rewiring a lot of critical stuff, so small mistakes can creep up and make mysterious errors down the road. Write a program that activates each control line at least once and make sure it works properly! With your assembler and Arduino programmer, this should be trivial.
Bonus: Adding B Register Output
With the additional control lines, don't forget you can now add a BO signal easily which lets you fully use the B register.

Step 3: Add a Stack (Image 1, Image 2)

Adding a stack significantly expands the capability of the CPU. It enables subroutines, recursion, and handling interrupts (with some additional logic). We'll create our stack with an 8-bit stack pointer hard-coded from $0100 to $01FF, just like the 6502.
Wiring up the Stack Pointer
A stack pointer is conceptually similar to a program counter. It stores an address, you can read it and write to it, and it increments. The only difference between a stack pointer and a program counter is that the stack pointer must also decrement. To create our stack pointer, we'll use two 74LS193 4-bit up/down binary counters:
  1. Place a 74LS00 NAND gate, 74LS245 transceiver, and two 74LS193 counters in a row next to your output register. Wire up power and ground.
  2. Wire the the Carry output of the right 193 to the Count Up input of the left 193. Do the same for the Borrow output and Count Down input.
  3. Connect the Clear input between the two 193s and with an active high reset line. The B register has one you can use on its 74LS173s.
  4. Connect the Load input between the two 193s and to a new active low control line called SI on your 74LS138 decoder.
  5. Connect the QA-QD outputs of the lower counter to A8-A5 and the upper counter to A4-A1. Pay special attention because the output are in a weird order (BACD) and you want to make sure the lower A is connected to A8 and the upper A is connected to A4.
  6. Connect the A-D inputs of the lower counter to B8-B5 and the upper counter to B4-B1. Again, the inputs are in a weird order and on both sides of the chip so pay special attention.
  7. Connect the B1-B8 outputs of the 74LS245 transceiver to the bus.
  8. On the 74LS245 transceiver, connect DIR to power (high) and connect OE to a new active low control line called SO on your 74LS138 decoder.
  9. Add 8 LEDs and resistors to the lower part of the 74LS245 transceiver (A1-A8) so you can see what's going on with the stack pointer.
Enabling Increment & Decrement
We've now connected everything but the Count Up and Count Down inputs. The way the 74LS193 works is that if nothing is counting, both inputs are high. If you want to increment, you keep Count Down high and pulse Count Up. To decrement, you do the opposite. We'll use a 74LS00 NAND gate for this:
  1. Take the clock from the 74LS08 AND gate and make it an input into two different NAND gates on the 74LS00.
  2. Take the output from one NAND gate and wire it to the Count Up input on the lower 74LS193 counter. Take the other output and wire it to the Count Down input.
  3. Wire up a new active high control line called SP from your ROM to the NAND gate going into Count Up.
  4. Wire up a new active high control line called SM from your ROM to the NAND gate going into Count Down.
At this point, everything should be working. Your counter should be able to reset, input a value, output a value, and increment/decrement. But the issue is it'll be writing to $0000 to $00FF in the RAM! Let's fix that.
Accessing Higher Memory Addresses
We need the stack to be in a different place in memory than our regular program. The problem is, we only have an 8-bit bus, so how do we tell the RAM we want a higher address? We'll use a special control line to do this:
  1. Wire up an active high line called SA from the 28C16 ROM to A8 on the Cypress CY7C199 RAM.
  2. Add an LED and resistor so you can see when the stack is active.
That's it! Now, whenever we need the stack we can use a combination of the control line and stack pointer to access $0100 to $01FF.
Updating the Instruction Set
All that's left now is to create some instructions that utilize the stack. We'll need to settle some conventions before we begin:
If you want to add a little personal flair to your design, you can change the convention fairly easily. Let's implement push and pop (source code):
  1. Define all your new control lines, such as #define SI 0x0700 and #define SO 0x0005.
  2. Create two new instructions: PSH (1011) and POP (1100).
  3. PSH starts the same as any other for the first two steps: MI|CO and RO|II|CE. The next step is to put the contents of the stack pointer into the address register via MI|SO|SA. Recall that SA is the special control line that tells the memory to access the $01XX bank rather than $00XX.
  4. We then take the contents of AO and write it into the RAM. We can also increment the stack pointer at this stage. All of this is done via: AO|RI|SP|SA, followed by TR.
  5. POP is pretty similar. Start off with MI|CO and RO|II|CE. We then need to take a cycle and decrement the stack pointer with SM. Like with PSH, we then set the address register with MI|SO|SA.
  6. We now just need to output the RAM into our A register with RO|AI|SA and then end the instruction with TR.
  7. Updating the assembler is easy since neither instruction has operands. For example, push is just psh -> 0x0B.
And that's it! Write some programs that take advantage of your new 256 byte stack to make sure everything works as expected.

Step 4: Add Subroutine Instructions (Image)

The last step to complete our stack is to add subroutine instructions. This allows us to write complex programs and paves the way for things like interrupt handling.
Subroutines are like a blend of push/pop instructions and a jump. Basically, when you want to call a subroutine, you save your spot in the program by pushing the program counter onto the stack, then jumping to the subroutine's location in memory. When you're done with the subroutine, you simply pop the program counter value from the stack and jump back into it.
We'll follow 6502 conventions and only save and restore the program counter for subroutines. Other CPUs may choose to save more state, but it's generally left up to the programmer to ensure they're not wiping out states in their subroutines (e.g., push the A register at the start of your subroutine if you're messing with it and restore it before you leave).
Adding an Extra Opcode Line
I've started running low on opcodes at this point. Luckily, we still have two free address lines we can use. To enable 5-bit opcodes, simply wire up the 4Q output of your upper 74LS173 register to A7 of your 28C16 ROM (this assumes your opcodes are at A3-A6).
Updating the ROM Writer
At this point, you simply need to update the Arduino writer to support 32 instructions vs. the current 16. So, for example, UCODE_TEMPLATE[16][8] becomes UCODE_TEMPLATE[32][8] and you fill in the 16 new array elements with nop. The problem is that the Arduino only has so much memory and with the way Ben's code is written to support conditional jumps, it starts to get tight.
I bet the code can be re-written to handle this, but I had a TL866II Plus EEPROM programmer handy from the 6502 build and I felt it would be easier to start using that instead. Converting to a regular C program is really simple (source code):
  1. Copy all the #define, global const arrays (don't forget to expand them from 16 to 32), and void initUCode(). Add #include and #include to the top.
  2. In your traditional int main (void) C function, after initializing with initUCode(), make two arrays: char ucode_upper[2048] and char ucode_lower[2048].
  3. Take your existing loop code that loops through all addresses: for (int address = 0; address < 2048; address++).
  4. Modify instruction to be 5-bit with int instruction = (address & 0b00011111000) >> 3;.
  5. When writing, just write to the arrays like so: ucode_lower[address] = ucode[flags][instruction][step]; and ucode_upper[address] = ucode[flags][instruction][step] >> 8;.
  6. Open a new file with FILE *f = fopen("rom_upper.hex", "wb");, write to it with fwrite(ucode_upper, sizeof(char), sizeof(ucode_upper), f); and close it with fclose(f);. Repeat this with the lower ROM too.
  7. Compile your code using gcc (you can use any C compiler), like so: gcc -Wall makerom.c -o makerom.
Running your program will spit out two binary files with the full contents of each ROM. Writing the file via the TL866II Plus requires minipro and the following command: minipro -p CAT28C16A -w rom_upper.hex.
Adding Subroutine Instructions
At this point, I cleaned up my instruction set layout a bit. I made psh and pop 1000 and 1001, respectively. I then created two new instructions: jsr and rts. These allow us to jump to a subroutine and returns from a subroutine. They're relatively simple:
  1. For jsr, the first three steps are the same as psh: MI|CO, RO|II|CE, MI|SO|SA.
  2. On the next step, instead of AO we use CO to save the program counter to the stack: CO|RI|SP|SA.
  3. We then essentially read the 2nd byte to do a jump and terminate: MI|CO, RO|J.
  4. For rts, the first four steps are the same as pop: MI|CO, RO|II|CE, SM, MI|SO|SA.
  5. On the next step, instead of AI we use J to load the program counter with the contents in stack: RO|J|SA.
  6. We're not done! If we just left this as-is, we'd jump to the 2nd byte of jsr which is not an opcode, but a memory address. All hell would break loose! We need to add a CE step to increment the program counter and then terminate.
Once you update the ROM, you should have fully functioning subroutines with 5-bit opcodes. One great way to test them is to create a recursive program to calculate something--just don't go too deep or you'll end up with a stack overflow!

Conclusion

And that's it! Another successful upgrade of your 8-bit CPU. You now have a very capable machine and toolchain. At this point I would have a bunch of fun with the software aspects. In terms of hardware, there's a number of ways to go from here:
  1. Interrupts. Interrupts are just special subroutines triggered by an external line. You can make one similar to how Ben did conditional jumps. The only added complexity is the need to load/save the flags register since an interrupt can happen at any time and you don't want to destroy the state. Given this would take more than 8 steps, you'd also need to add another line for the step counter (see below).
  2. ROM expansion. At this point, address lines on the ROM are getting tight which limits any expansion possibilities. With the new approach to ROM programming, it's trivial to switch out the 28C16 for the 28C256 that Ben uses in the 6502. These give you 4 additional address lines for flags/interrupts, opcodes, and steps.
  3. LCD output. At this point, adding a 16x2 character LCD like Ben uses in the 6502 is very possible.
  4. Segment/bank register. It's essentially a 2nd memory address register that lets you access 256-byte segments/banks of RAM using bank switching. This lets you take full advantage of the 32K of RAM in the Cypress chip.
  5. Fast increment instructions. Add these to registers by replacing 74LS173s with 74LS193s, allowing you to more quickly increment without going through the ALU. This is used to speed up loops and array operations.
submitted by MironV to beneater [link] [comments]

Cryptosoft Review 2020-Is it a Scam?

Cryptosoft Review 2020-Is it a Scam?

Most f the reviews we tend to have come back across reveal that the Cryptp soft platform is easy to
Their client service is very efficient. We did a live check and confirmed that they respond at intervals a moment. Moreover, they are available 24/7.
The Cryptp soft app is secure. They need all the mandatory measures in place to make sure data privacy.
The Cryptp soft System is considered by several among the most effective robots within the market nowadays. We have a tendency to realize this robot to perform virtually the same with Bitcoin Rush, another top bitcoin robot. Read the review of Bitcoin Rush for more data?
Cryptp soft registration method is straightforward, easy, and secure. You only want but 10 minutes to form an account and begin trading. Cryptp soft is a absolutely auto bot and is so accessible to everyone.

https://preview.redd.it/giu6kclgfnn51.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f605d84ba2174f831ca825dbaffddf061b3a55b5
You do not want to perceive trading lingo to use Immediate Edge. The following steps can get you started with this robot.
STEP ONE: Fill the Signup type

Visit the Cryptp soft home page and register your name, phone number, and email in the provided kind. You will be asked to verify your phone variety via a text code and email through a link. CryptoVibes will ascertain that the Cryptp soft registration process is secure.

Their web site is SSL secured to confirm that hackers cannot steal personal information submitted through it. Cryptp soft cyber safety policy states that they're GDPR adherent. This suggests that they handle your knowledge with strict privacy.
STEP TWO: Get matched with a broker

The Cryptp soft Software then matches you with one in every of their partner brokers. The role of the broker is to receive deposits and facilitate transactions. We have a tendency to have determined that Cryptp soft only partners with regulated brokers.

With a regulated broker, they guarantee that your cash is safe. Reputable regulators such as the FCA, FSB, ASIC, and CySEC need brokers to segregate deposits and submit periodic reports on deposit usage.
You wold like a deposit of a minimum of $250 to trade with Immediate Edge. Do not confuse this quantity with the value of the robot. Cryptp soft does not need any license fee. The house owners of this robot build money by charging a small commission on the profits generated through the app
Deposits with Cryptp soft should be created through Wire Transfer, Visa, and MasterCard. It takes a few seconds for a deposit to reflect in an exceedingly trader’s account. Cryptp soft does not charge any deposit fees.
The Cryptp soft does provide a demo account to help traders familiarize themselves with its web-trader. CryptoVibes recommends that you are doing demo trading before going to live to trade. Please note that the demo is for demonstrative purposes solely.
The results you receive on the platform are primarily based on historical information and could therefore not mirror what you'll get in live trading.
The Cryptp soft live trader comes with features to help you outline the amount of risk you are willing to require per trade. You wish to go through the demo account to familiarize with these features. As mentioned severally in this review, you do not want specialized skills to use this robot.
Live trading with Cryptp soft involves determining the quantity of capital you plan to risk per trade and clicking the live button. Scan our review of Bitcoin Trader for one more straightforward to use the robot.
*Remember all trading risks and you shouldn’t risk more then you'll be able to afford to lose.
How to get the most out of Cryptp soft App
We have identified the following tips as paramount in guaranteeing that you make the most of Immediate Edge.
Begin with a deposit of $250 – Given the level of risk involved in trading with Immediate Edge, you should start with a tiny investment.
Follow crypto market news – You need to determine the type of reports that drives volatility high and capitalize on them. Cryptp soft claims to form the foremost profits throughout high market volatility.
Trade for eight hours per day – In keeping with Immediate Edge, trading for at least eight hours per day can help maximize profits. Cryptp soft is entirely auto, and hence you'll be able to leave the robot running as you continue together with your daily errands. You are doing not want more than twenty minutes per day to observe your account.
Close trading sessions at the tip of the day – Leaving open positions overnight is doubtless to translate to losses since the markets can change considerably overnight. It is better to shut sessions even if in the negative and start trading again the subsequent day. With a correct risk management strategy, there is no would like to fret concerning periodic losses.
Following our review we tend to realize Cryptp soft to be legit. But, traders ought to take additional caution, provided that this bot comes at a degree of risk. Whereas the app claims it's potential to form profits of up to 50percent per day, you'll be able to additionally lose the complete deposit inside seconds. This is often not sudden for a high-frequency trading robot.
We recommend that you just apply the required risk management measures. As a rule of thumb don't risk more than 10percent of your trading capital per trade. Also, never trade with an amount you cannot afford to lose. It is prudent to start small and add cash as you get conversant with the various features on the platform.
Recently, a brand new trading software was added to the bitcoin investment trade. This software is termed Cryptp soft and it is allegedly created by a corporation or organization called the International Council for Bitcoin.
There is additionally a letter out there on their web site that has been signed by someone named David. This person claims to own earned over 1,000,000 as a results of investing in bitcoins. What’s very shocking concerning this letter is that David claims to have earned that huge quantity in just one trade. If we have a tendency to place it in simple words, David became a millionaire overnight.
We tend to highly doubt that a trading system that has been launched recently will have such potential. To verify the main points of this software and to determine its legitimacy, we have a tendency to conducted our own research and investigation.
Cryptp soft is a bitcoin trading software that’s meant to assist newbie traders get involved in Cryptocurrency trading with less risk than ancient investment opportunities. Cryptp soft software was created by The International Council For Bitcoin who is PRO Bitcoin trader Group behind the Cryptp soft software. Notice out all concerning Cryptp soft software by The International Council For Bitcoin.
Cryptp soft Software may be a nice development by a famous, well established and experienced bitcoin trader Investors with a viewpoint to enable traders to perform different tasks with ease and convenience.

https://preview.redd.it/uuh85yghfnn51.png?width=1238&format=png&auto=webp&s=d0558e6e123114b6624d5a724b3b9b5983e717e1
Cryptp soft Software is essentially a Binary choices trading software that is designed to assist traders win and predict the Binary options trend of their respective choices. Cryptp soft APP works as a code to urge financial success, shows traders how they'll make money on-line, helps them to find different ways in which to induce huge returns on their investment. The Cryptp soft Trading Software additionally provides analyses of Market conditions so that traders will recognize what ought to be their next step. Cryptp soft System gives secret cryptocurrency ways that ultimately help binary traders to create thousands of greenbacks solely for some bucks.
Several individuals can say that Cryptocurrency Trading may be a risky business and tend to remain faraway from it. But from my expertise, high volatility means HIGH RETURN OF INVESTMENT in Crypto Market. But this can be where the Cryptp soft comes into play, the mathematical algorithm used by Cryptp soft Software takes the guesswork out choosing a winning profitable trade. You don’t must be an expert. Like I said earlier, I actually have personally tested the Cryptp soft and found the success rate is about ninety sevenpercent. I don’t apprehend concerning you, but a ninety seven% probability of earning a profitable trade is TERRIBLY GOOD! I’ve never come across something like this trading software before. Keep reading, below are my Cryptp soft results for the past week or so…
Watch over the Shoulder of a Professional Each Day and you'll be able to learn as you trade.
Averaging 97% Winning Weeks With Cryptp soft which suggests that more potential profits for you
Cryptp soft Software Are Fully Transparent
No previous experience with binary choices trading required
Web-based mostly, no need for downloads, additionally works on phones, tablets
You'll be able to Even Watch Cryptp soft Signals From Your Phone (iPhone Users — Photon Browser)
If you are ready to begin making cash online with an on the spot edge, there has never been a better chance than currently. If you enjoy surfing the web for countless hours trying for the next Trading Method Secrets, never being able to urge centered, being overloaded with conflicting information, and not creating cash on-line, you ought to probably leave this page right now and get back to that Cryptp soft System strategy
Cryptp soft bot could be a new cryptocurrency trading invention that comes with options that create this software stand out among others. It is conjointly an automatic trading platform that uses a smart program algorithm to detect favorable trading opportunities. It acts on its own or waits for a prompt command from the user depending on the software’s settings. But what makes this software unique and a favorite to individuals is what we have a tendency to shall unveil in this review.
There have been lots of unverified claims of how totally different cryptocurrency software have helped several people to make massive profits leading to Scam individuals. However, it's pertinent for cryptocurrency traders to verify if a particular trading software may be a scam or legit, which is also ?
After subjecting the features of the Cryptp soft bot software to a series of tests, the software isn't a scam however legit. The Cryptp soft bot is believed to have successful rate of 85%, that is a lot of than the 80percent benchmark for average software. The Cryptp soft bot has helped cryptocurrency traders to make sensible profits, which has been documented as testimonies on the software’s website.
Trading on the platform is straightforward and might not require experience. We had to verify the simplicity of the software, and we tend to discovered that the software is easy to navigate. The demo trading feature of the software makes it potential for brand new users to hold out trading activities in an exceedingly simulated atmosphere while not having to risk their investment. This any gives credence to the legitimacy of the software because it ensures that new users get accustomed to the features of the software before continuing to measure to trade
As earlier stated, the Cryptp soft bot could be a high-tech program software that comes with exceptional options that makes it among the simplest cryptocurrency trading software in the blockchain market. The outstanding features of the Cryptp soft bot embody the subsequent:
https://www.cryptoerapro.com/cryptosoft/

http://www.cryptoerapro.com/

https://twitter.com/cryptoerapro

https://www.instagram.com/cryptoerapro/

https://www.pinterest.co.uk/cryptoerapro/
submitted by cryptoerapro to u/cryptoerapro [link] [comments]

CRTPi4-RCA v3.4FX - Composite TV-Out for your Pi4!

CRTPi Project Presents:

CRTPi4-RCA v3.4FX

A CRTPi image for running 240p via 3.5mm Composite on the Raspberry Pi4
Other Releases:
Changelog: v3.4FX for RCA (PAL Only) 5/18/2020
Changelog: v3.4FX for RCA (NTSC&&PAL) 5/17/2020
Changelog: v3.0F for RCA 5/11/2020
Changelog: v2.0F for RCA 4/1/2020
Changelog: v1.1FX 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.0F Hotfix 10/31/2019
Changelog: v1.0F 10/29/2019
Changelog: v0.4 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 10/2/2019
How does this even work!?
The amazing u/b0xspread has found a way to enforce modeswitching by watching the logs and processes, and continuing to enforce our desired mode long after the system wants to revert back. We're both expanding this scripting further to hopefully solve the same issues on the RGB and VGA forks -- but progress is slow due to the complex and varied nature of available resolution modes on those builds. But for now, let's just call this "black magic."
What Does That Look Like?
Here are some examples of games being played in beautiful 240p on CRT sets using the RCA Image!.
What is Different?
  • Retropie 4.6 (build 72132587 commit 05/07/20 Buster 10)
  • Retroarch 1.8.5
  • Full Apt-Upgrade for newest firmware and app dependancies (Recommended to repeat this function on your own Pi4)
  • 4GB (3872256 KB Uncompressed Image) (Compressed via WinRAR to 1043540KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Heavily modified Sakitoshi CRT-TVout script for switching between 480i and 240p
  • Further modified Sakitoshi script by u/b0xspread to allow video resolution switching on Pi4 Architecture
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi4 (disabled by default) [RECOMMENDED!]
  • NTSC @ 60hz 720/640x480 480i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • PAL @ 50hz 720/640x576 576i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 640x480 Progressive (240 lines) for Retroarch
  • PAL @ 50hz 640x576 Progressive (288 lines) for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Optional 480i mode for PSX and Arcade games
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Preloaded with 4:3 Ruckage's runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 horiz/vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx pallete
  • Retroarch Picodrive (SMS/32X) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 with 1X Sega Mastersystem & 1X Sega 32X resolution
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (Special 1 Pallete) mode with 2x integer scale SGB Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with 2x integer scale GBP Overlay
  • Other Retroarch handheld emulators preset for optimized wide display with overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini theme configured for 4:3
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B+. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
Runahead Tested ~60FPS Stable:
  • Game Gear
  • Game Boy
  • Game Boy Color
  • Game Boy Advance
  • Master System
  • Megadrive
  • NES
  • PC Engine
  • PCE-CD
  • Sega 32X
  • Sega CD
  • SNES
Runahead Tested < 50FPS Unstable:
  • FB Neo
  • FB Alpha
  • Mame
  • N64
  • PlayStation
  • PSP
Runahead Untested:
  • Atari 800
  • Atari 2600
  • Atari 5200
  • Atari 7800
  • Atari Lynx
  • Coleco
  • Intellivision
  • MSX
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copywritten games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!
CRTPi4-RCA NTSC v3.4F: For Raspberry Pi4 Composite-Out @ 60hz
MD5: 7df8453c2e8029b06def7864351ec768 
CRTPi4-RCA PAL-D v3.4F: For Raspberry Pi4 Composite-Out @ 50hz
MD5: ab2bd6ab228bd6f58a22de15044fb46a 
How do I install the Arcade Configuration Pack?
These are the resolution-correct preset arcade configs for MAME/FBA including vertical games. There is roughly 38K files in there, spread out across several systems (arcade, fba, mame-libretro, and neogeo). Having these pre-installed would not allow either image to fit on the SD card used, and may not be needed for everyone. It's a fairly simple process that won't take more than a few minutes of your time.
  • Drop to shell or connect via SSH, and navigate to root (cd /)
  • Download the CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip with the command:
    sudo wget https://github.com/crtpi/CRTPi-Project/raw/masteCRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Unzip and overwrite files with the command:
    sudo unzip -o -q CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Remove the zip with the command
    sudo rm CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Restore read/write access to the files you have overwritten with the command:
    sudo chmod a+rw -R /opt/retropie/configs/
How can I take full advantage of the 480i/240p Switching?
To force 480i for a system or game, you can create a '480i.txt' file inside the configuration folder of the system with a list of the file names (case insensitive, extension optional but recommended) you want to force.
If you wish to force 480i for a whole system, you can write "all" inside the '480i.txt' file.
Alternatively you can create a "240p.txt" file to force 480i to all games except for the ones inside the list.
You can read more about the script functionality here.
Example:
/opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" to force 480i for the file "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" /opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i for all the PlayStation games. /opt/retropie/configs/ports/kodi/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i on Kodi. 
I have X Issue! Help?
Why isn't there a Pi4 PAL version?
Try as I might, I have been unable to get a PAL signal out of the SDTV port on a Pi4. My BVM displays PAL-S and PAL-D fine, but neither will get anything but static. I don't even get a rolling B&W image, just horrible static. If you figure out a way, let me know!
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
I want to switch back to lr-mupen64plus!
  • When launching an n64 game, mash buttons on the controller until the runcommand window comes up.
  • Select on "1 Set default emulator for n64" and choose "lr-mupen64plus"
  • Then "Q Exit (without launching)"
  • Launch the game again -- it will launch in the chosen emulator at the proper resolution
What A/V cable should I use for 3.5mm Composite?
I recommend the Zune A/V cable or XBOX 360E cable, you can find them on eBay and Amazon.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
submitted by ErantyInt to u/ErantyInt [link] [comments]

CRTPi4-RCA v3.4FX - Composite TV-Out for your Pi4!

CRTPi Project Presents:

CRTPi4-RCA v3.4FX

A CRTPi image for running 240p via 3.5mm Composite on the Raspberry Pi4
Other Releases:
Changelog: v3.4FX for RCA (PAL Only) 5/18/2020
Changelog: v3.4FX for RCA (NTSC&&PAL) 5/17/2020
Changelog: v3.0F for RCA 5/11/2020
Changelog: v2.0F for RCA 4/1/2020
Changelog: v1.1FX 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.0F Hotfix 10/31/2019
Changelog: v1.0F 10/29/2019
Changelog: v0.4 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 10/2/2019
How does this even work!?
The amazing u/b0xspread has found a way to enforce modeswitching by watching the logs and processes, and continuing to enforce our desired mode long after the system wants to revert back. We're both expanding this scripting further to hopefully solve the same issues on the RGB and VGA forks -- but progress is slow due to the complex and varied nature of available resolution modes on those builds. But for now, let's just call this "black magic."
What Does That Look Like?
Here are some examples of games being played in beautiful 240p on CRT sets using the RCA Image!.
What is Different?
  • Retropie 4.6 (build 72132587 commit 05/07/20 Buster 10)
  • Retroarch 1.8.5
  • Full Apt-Upgrade for newest firmware and app dependancies (Recommended to repeat this function on your own Pi4)
  • 4GB (3872256 KB Uncompressed Image) (Compressed via WinRAR to 1043540KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Heavily modified Sakitoshi CRT-TVout script for switching between 480i and 240p
  • Further modified Sakitoshi script by u/b0xspread to allow video resolution switching on Pi4 Architecture
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi4 (disabled by default) [RECOMMENDED!]
  • NTSC @ 60hz 720/640x480 480i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • PAL @ 50hz 720/640x576 576i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 640x480 Progressive (240 lines) for Retroarch
  • PAL @ 50hz 640x576 Progressive (288 lines) for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Optional 480i mode for PSX and Arcade games
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Preloaded with 4:3 Ruckage's runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 horiz/vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx pallete
  • Retroarch Picodrive (SMS/32X) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 with 1X Sega Mastersystem & 1X Sega 32X resolution
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (Special 1 Pallete) mode with 2x integer scale SGB Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with 2x integer scale GBP Overlay
  • Other Retroarch handheld emulators preset for optimized wide display with overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini theme configured for 4:3
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B+. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
Runahead Tested ~60FPS Stable:
  • Game Gear
  • Game Boy
  • Game Boy Color
  • Game Boy Advance
  • Master System
  • Megadrive
  • NES
  • PC Engine
  • PCE-CD
  • Sega 32X
  • Sega CD
  • SNES
Runahead Tested < 50FPS Unstable:
  • FB Neo
  • FB Alpha
  • Mame
  • N64
  • PlayStation
  • PSP
Runahead Untested:
  • Atari 800
  • Atari 2600
  • Atari 5200
  • Atari 7800
  • Atari Lynx
  • Coleco
  • Intellivision
  • MSX
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copywritten games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!
CRTPi4-RCA NTSC v3.4F: For Raspberry Pi4 Composite-Out @ 60hz
MD5: 7df8453c2e8029b06def7864351ec768 
CRTPi4-RCA PAL-D v3.4F: For Raspberry Pi4 Composite-Out @ 50hz
MD5: ab2bd6ab228bd6f58a22de15044fb46a 
How do I install the Arcade Configuration Pack?
These are the resolution-correct preset arcade configs for MAME/FBA including vertical games. There is roughly 38K files in there, spread out across several systems (arcade, fba, mame-libretro, and neogeo). Having these pre-installed would not allow either image to fit on the SD card used, and may not be needed for everyone. It's a fairly simple process that won't take more than a few minutes of your time.
  • Drop to shell or connect via SSH, and navigate to root (cd /)
  • Download the CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip with the command:
    sudo wget https://github.com/crtpi/CRTPi-Project/raw/masteCRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Unzip and overwrite files with the command:
    sudo unzip -o -q CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Remove the zip with the command
    sudo rm CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Restore read/write access to the files you have overwritten with the command:
    sudo chmod a+rw -R /opt/retropie/configs/
How can I take full advantage of the 480i/240p Switching?
To force 480i for a system or game, you can create a '480i.txt' file inside the configuration folder of the system with a list of the file names (case insensitive, extension optional but recommended) you want to force.
If you wish to force 480i for a whole system, you can write "all" inside the '480i.txt' file.
Alternatively you can create a "240p.txt" file to force 480i to all games except for the ones inside the list.
You can read more about the script functionality here.
Example:
/opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" to force 480i for the file "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" /opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i for all the PlayStation games. /opt/retropie/configs/ports/kodi/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i on Kodi. 
I have X Issue! Help?
Why isn't there a Pi4 PAL version?
Try as I might, I have been unable to get a PAL signal out of the SDTV port on a Pi4. My BVM displays PAL-S and PAL-D fine, but neither will get anything but static. I don't even get a rolling B&W image, just horrible static. If you figure out a way, let me know!
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
I want to switch back to lr-mupen64plus!
  • When launching an n64 game, mash buttons on the controller until the runcommand window comes up.
  • Select on "1 Set default emulator for n64" and choose "lr-mupen64plus"
  • Then "Q Exit (without launching)"
  • Launch the game again -- it will launch in the chosen emulator at the proper resolution
What A/V cable should I use for 3.5mm Composite?
I recommend the Zune A/V cable or XBOX 360E cable, you can find them on eBay and Amazon.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
submitted by ErantyInt to crtgaming [link] [comments]

CRTPi-RGB v3.0 - Buster Busts Loose!

CRTPi Project Presents:

CRTPi-RGB v3.0

A CRTPi image for running 240p via GPIO RGB DAC Hats
Other Releases:
Changelog: v3.0 for 888 & 666 05/12/2020 - Emergency Fixes
Changelog: v3.0 for 888 & 666 05/08/2020
Changelog: v2.0 for 888 & 666 03/25/2020
Changelog: v1.1X for 666 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.1X for 888 & 666 12/19/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 11/7/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 666 10/24/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 for 888 & 666 10/2/2019
Changelog: v0.2 for 888 09/27/2019
Changelog: v0.1 for 888 09/20/2019
Required Hardware:
What is a RetroTINK? Or a VGA666?
RetroTINK is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi3/3B+ that converts digital video signal back into 24-bit analog. It provides output over RCA, S-Video, Component, and VGA -- as well as supporting CSYNC, super-resolutions, and custom resolution timings.
VGA666 is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog out via VGA. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
Pi2SCART is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog RGB out via SCART. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
What Does That Even Mean?
It makes your Pi capable of outputting a true 240p analog signal for CRT televisions and monitors, and is capable of 5x (1600x240) and higher super resolutions.
What Does That Look Like?
I don't have the greatest pics saved for comparison, but here's some examples of the 888.
What is Different? (888 & 666)
  • Retropie 4.6 (build 7c5e31bb commit 05/07/20 Buster 10)
  • Retroarch 1.8.5
  • 4GB (3872256 KB) Uncompressed Image (Compressed via WinRAR to 982256 KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Custom /boot/config.txt settings for DPI output and custom HDMI timings
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi2 & Pi3B (disabled by default)
  • Modified Michael Vencio's Runcommand “On Start” and “On End” scripts to automatically change the resolution system-by-system and game-by-game
  • Modified Runcommand "On Start" script to allow creation of game-specific arcade configs for arcade/fba/mame-libretro/neogeo
  • NTSC @ 60hz 320x240 resolution for Emulationstation and DOSBox/ScummVM/Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 2048x240, 1920x240, and 1600x240 resolution for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles with art by chipsnblip
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Preloaded with custom runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Preconfigured MOST Retroarch emulators for proper Integer Scale SuperRes
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 8:7 vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx palette
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (SGB2 auto coloration) mode with Integer Scale Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with Integer Scale Overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini (default) and nes-mini themes configured for 4:3
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
  • Custom Retropie menu scripts for switching between Retrotink and VGA666-based hardware ___
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
To disable runahead for a game (or emulator):
Quick Menu > Latency > Run-Ahead to Reduce Latency > OFF 
What about your new Per-Game Configs and Snap-Shader?
The RGB and VGA forks are now utilizing Snap-Shader, plus a newly-enhanced runcommand-onstart script, with provision for user-specified per-game configuration!
Here's the new script:
https://github.com/crtpi/CRTPi-Project/blob/masteRGB-to_opt/retropie/configs/all/runcommand-onstart.sh 
Here's information about Snap-Shader:
https://github.com/ektgit/snap-shader-240p 
And here's a quick rundown on how it works:
Not only does the new script carry forward the per-core scripting for 2048x / 1920x / and 1600x resolutions -- but adds per-game scripting by adding a text file to the system config and naming the rom(s) within the file. This allows you to force 2048x on a system that defaults to 1920x. This is especially useful for PSX, FDS, PCE/PCE-CD, and MAME for the few games that are 256 or 512 wide. Below are some example config files:
/opt/retropie/conifgs/psx/256.txt
Brave Prove Castlevania - Symphony of the Night Crash Bandicoot Final Fantasy Origins Final Fantasy Tactics 
/opt/retropie/conifgs/megadrive/256.txt
Bubble And Squeak Bubsy in - Claws Encounters of the Furred Kind Bugs Bunny in Double Trouble Caesars Palace Captain America and the Avengers 
/opt/retropie/conifgs/fds/320.txt
Akumajou Dracula Donkey Kong Otocky Super Mario Brothers 2 
You get the jist. It doesn't need an extension, not case sensitive, but should match the ROM name (including punctuation) exactly. This forces them to launch in 2048x240p instead of the default 1920x240p. This gives the end user full control on a game-per-game basis over the horizontal integer. You'll still need to write a retroarch game config to override the defaults there, but this at least gets you the right field. For games with odd/shifting vertical resolutions (like Chrono Cross, Battle Arena Toshinden, Castlevania SotN, etc.), a single pass of snap-shader is applied (snap-basic, nearest neighbor filtering, and "don't care" scale).
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copy-written games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Google Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!
CRTPi-RGB v3.0: For Pi3B/3B+ with Retrotink, Pi2SCART, RGB-Pi, or VGA666
MD5: d9d28f5ae8fe5cc829348be4b5a103fc 
Install Instructions:
For Retrotink Ultimate:
  • Download image and unRAR it.
  • Flash to your SD card with Win32DiskImager or Etcher.
  • Boot as normal, run Raspi-Config, and choose Expand Filesystem from Advanced Options.
  • Reboot from Raspi-Config, and enjoy your Pi!
For Pi2SCART/RGB-Pi/VGA666:
  • Download image and unRAR it.
  • Flash to your SD card with Win32DiskImager or Etcher.
  • BEFORE BOOTING Edit 'config.txt' on your SD card's BOOT partition, uncomment the section relevant to your device, and comment all other devices.
    ## Pi2SCART & VGA666 only!!
    #dtoverlay=vga666
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #Pi2SCART/VGA666 [email protected]
    __
    ## RGB-Pi only!!
    #dtoverlay=pwm-2chan,pin=18,func=2,pin2=19,func2=2
    #dtoverlay=rgb-pi
    #dpi_output_format=6
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RGB-Pi [email protected]
    __
    ## RetroTINK Ultimate only!!
    #dtoverlay=dpi24
    #dpi_output_format=519
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 23 30 34 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RetroTINK [email protected]
__
  • Boot as normal, run Raspi-Config, and choose Expand Filesystem from Advanced Options, then reboot.
  • In Emulationstation, run "Enable VGA666" from the Retropie menu.
  • Your system will automatically reboot. Enjoy your Pi!
To Revert VGA666 to Retrotink Settings
  • In Emulationstation, run "Enable Retrotink" from the Retropie menu.
  • Your system will automatically reboot with the new settings.
Default Retroarch Keyboard Hotkeys
*SPACE: Enable Hotkey* F1 Menu F2 FF Toggle F3 Reset F4 Cheat Toggle F5 Save State F6 Load State F7 Change State - F8 Change State + F9 Screenshot F10 Mute ENTER: Exit 
I have X Issue! Help?
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
Timings for Boot and Runcommand
320 x 240p @ 60hz Timings: Emulationstation, DOSBox, ScummVM, etc.
320 1 15 30 42 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 Retrotink 320x240p Timing 320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #VGA666 320x240p Timing 
Integer Scale Super-Resolution 240p @ 60hz Timings: All Retroarch Emulators
2048 1 160 202 320 240 1 3 5 14 0 0 0 60 0 42954545 1 #256x240/224p 1920 1 137 247 295 240 1 3 7 12 0 0 0 60 0 40860000 1 #320x240/224p 1600 1 73 157 204 240 1 4 3 15 0 0 0 60 0 32000000 1 #320x240/224p Alternate 
submitted by ErantyInt to u/ErantyInt [link] [comments]

Fixing KotFE Part 4 - What's An Alliance Without Allies?

Special thanks again to these two sites for summarising the expansions so I don't have to watch hours of youtube videos or fights thousands of Skytroopers to remember what happened in some of the chapters. They were incredibly helpful and I honestly don't know if I would have bothered finishing this if I didn't have them on hand. Also, if you want to compare and contrast my story to the original, these will probably come in handy.

Introduction

Welcome to Part 4 of Fixing KotFE! Here, I'll be looking at the story after you take over as Alliance Commander which, in my version, occurs in Chapter 6. The story up until this point can be found in Part 3 here.
This is the section where I usually write out my aims but these carry on from Part 3, so I'll save everyone some time there. I'm really happy with some of the changes I made and I think we get some cool concepts that aren't explored in the original so I hope you like it too. However, there is something I'd like to explain that I never really got into. Technically, I guess it would go into the gameplay section but it feels more story-based.
I'd add a prison to the base on Asylum where you can place characters who you decide to capture or imprison. At this point in the story, that would only allow for Senya, if you chose to imprison her, rather than allow her to join the council, however there are other characters in the future who can be held there. I think the prison would be an optional area that you can visit and talk to your prisoners, if you have any. They would say different things depending on your last completed chapter. This would obviously add more voice acting but I think it would help to create a sense of continuity when you can see and talk to these characters you chose t capture. It would also allow Senya to continue being a part of the story, even if you chose not to allow her onto the War Council. It's also just a fun idea that plays well into you being the big boss if you can interrogate your prisoners.
With that little bit out of the way, we'll start with:

Chapter 7: Twin-Tailed Scorpion

Some time has passed since you officially joined, and became the commander of the Alliance. You are called to the war table to discuss a strange broadcast that Theron had picked up. He refuses to tell you more without meeting in person.
You join your war council, who are already in place. As a reminder, this includes:
Theron reveals that he received a distress signal from the very prison you had been imprisoned in for 5 years. Even more peculiar, the signal was only broadcast on channels used by Imperial Intelligence before it was disbanded. Theron warns you that this was probably a trap but Lana points out that you could use some allies on Zakuul. You decide it's strange enough to investigate regardless.
The scene shifts to you being discreetly dropped off within the Old World district of Zakuul, with Hylo explaining that it would be impossible to get you any closer without being spotted, with Arcann having increased security after your escape, increasing the production of the prototype Skytroopers.
You make your way through the Old World where your radio signal is lost. Instead, you are greeted by a strange, robotic voice that begins directing you to a service door in the Old World. You go through the door which shuts and locks behind you and begin making your way back up to the prison, fighting through maintenance and industry droids as you do, all the time being directed by the synthesised feminine voice.
Eventually, you enter the prison once more. However, you are in a different part than before. You continue to receive directions, with doors closing to cut off Knights and allowing you to pass. You are eventually brought to a room. The door opening to reveal SCORPIO, hooked up to a machine and wired into the wall. She speaks to you, introducing herself and explaining the situation (or simply explaining what had happened if speaking to an agent).
SCORPIO explains that, after Arcann's takeover of the galaxy, she allied with him, quickly rising through the ranks to become one of Arcann's most trustworthy allies over the 5 years. However, this was all a ruse so that she could gain information. She planned to sell Arcann's secrets to the highest bidder but was caught before she could leave Zakuul. She was imprisoned and wired into the prison security system, trapped both physically and mentally. However, the Zakuulians underestimated her and within days, she had taken over the system completely. She'd even snark that this wasn't the first prison security system she had taken control of, referencing Belsavis. She explains that she had discovered your location while in the system and had managed to send a message to Lana, allowing her to enact your escape. SCORPIO goes on to add that she had used the security systems to aid you, in the hopes that you would return the favour and free her from her own imprisonment, since the prison was a closed system and she was locked inside. In return, she would join the Alliance, if only to get revenge on Arcann.
You agree to free her and are sent around the prison to deactivate various systems, allowing SCORPIO's escape.As you do so, you see snippets of SCORPIO's most recent memories, showing Arcann ambushing her as she attempts to leave the palace, sadly admitting that he had hoped she wouldn't try to betray him, even after the Scions warned him it would happen. SCORPIO, being her usual self, would respond snarkily, leading Arcann to angrily sentence her to be implemented within the prison security system. You then have to defend SCORPIO's body from Skytroopers and Knights while her consciousness downloads into it once again. As she is freed, explosions rock the prison and SCORPIO smugly explains that it is time for you to leave. Before you can ask how, another explosion causes the cell to break away from the prison complex, letting you freefall towards the planet's surface. You are saved as Hylo's dropship swoops in managing to catch the cell within the cargo bay.
Returning to Asylum, SCORPIO begins to brief everyone on what she knows; to get to Arcann, the infrastructure of Zakuul must be taken down, starting with the Old World, where he has the weakest grip. Arcann rules over the Old World thanks to a shaky alliance with the Scion cult. The Scions essentially rule over the sector by providing Arcann with access to Heskal's prophecies. In turn, only a minimal security force of Skytroopers exists in the Old World. She mentions that the best way to dethrone Heskal and the Scions is to work with one of the rival gangs. Lana adds that she had already established contact with two of the Old World's gangs and that she would need time to set up meetings with the gang leaders.
At this point, you see your first newsreel. It shows two presenters, a male who introduces himself as Adorus Bell and a female, Zelia Myker, sitting at a desk and recounting an act of domestic terrorism by the cell calling itself the Alliance. The Alliance, led by a radical extremist who is believed to be serving Vitiate destroyed a secure complex, killing a number of knights who were protecting the area and almost killing Princess Vaylin, who has been moved to a more secure facility. Thanks to the sacrifices of the Knights, no civilians were injured in the explosion. They then broadcast a message from Emperor Arcann himself, reassuring the people of Zakuul that he will personally capture this Agent of Vitiate and stop the Alliance.
My aim here was to establish SCORPIO with a clear character that fits her personality, keep her selfish amorality and also provide her with a motivation to actually help you, even if she's still secretive and coy about it. She wants revenge on Arcann for pre-empting her betrayal and imprisoning her. she simply thinks that you and your Alliance are the best chance at fulfilling her revenge. SCORPIO's weakness was always her pride. We don't really see that In the proper expansions. Instead, we just got a series of convoluted double crosses and fake outs which were just more confusing than anything and made it seem like she just bounced from one side to the other. I hope to create a more straight forward story For SCORPIO that is still true to the character. I also liked the idea of SCORPIO ending up in a similar situation to when the agent first meets her.
As an extra note, I added the idea of you escaping via SCORPIO ejecting the cell And hylo catching it at the last moment and I Just really think its a fun, silly concept that gets to show off SCORPIO's unique problem solving while selling Hylo as a great pilot.
Lastly, this is where I introduce a new narrative technique. In the original game, we often jump to conversations between Vaylin and Arcann that we, as the character, are not privy to. I think this is a problem since we, as the audience, now know more than our characters do which creates a narrative dissonance to the choices. I understand that the purpose of this was to develop Arcann and Vaylin as characters while we couldn't meet them but I think a better solution would be the newsreels. It lets us see Arcann, in character, and gives us an understanding of what the population of Zakuul are getting in terms of how our actions are portrayed.

Chapter 8: Friends In Low Places

You receive a message from Lana who has contacted two gangs within the Old World. She asks for you to accompany her to meet with the gang leaders and choose which one you'd want to work with. As you travel, you learn from Lana that the Scions are practically untouchable, due to Arcann's aid. The local security chief, Captain Arex, secretly protects them from other gangs in return for Heskal providing Arcann with visions of the future.
The two of you shuttle to the Old World and go to meet with the gangs. The first is a group of anarchists led by Kaliyo known as the Firebrands. They have a plan to blow up a Skytrooper factory and need your help. Theron argues over the radio that the factory is too close to civilians while Lana points out that destroying Arcann's source of troops would hurt the war effort.
You then go to meet the other gang, a group of thieves known as the Old World Kath Hounds, led by Vette, who steal from the rich living in the Spire to give back to people of the Old World. While they have the favour of the people of the Old World, the gang members aren't fighters and wouldn't be able to help much with the war effort. Vette proposes a plan to steal intelligence from the Old World security depot. However, they need your help to distract the security chief and his Skytroopers.
At this point, you have to choose who you will ally with; Kaliyo's Firebrands or Vette's Kath Hounds. Depending on the one you choose, you are sent on a different mission.
For the Kath Hounds, you create trouble, attracting the security forces and fighting off Skytroopers. While they chase you, Vette keeps you informed on the mission's progress as they sneak into the security depot and take what you need, before you are tasked with escaping from the Skytroopers and meet back up with Vette.
Meanwhile, if you chose to aid the Firebrands, you are tasked with placing bombs around supports beneath the droid factory, since the factory itself is too well secured. As you go, you are met by security forces that you have to defeat. As you finish, you rejoin with Kaliyo and watch the bombs go off, causing a section of the Spire to collapse down, much to Kaliyo's delight.
With the mission complete, your chosen gang agrees to aid you against the Scions. Both groups managed to find information on Arex that he was extorting money from civilians within the Old World in return for protection. If this was revealed to those in the Spire, they would demand his imprisonment. However, before you can set up plans, the base is attacked by Captain Arex and a prototype skytrooper design. You and your chosen gang leader fight the two of them. You can then choose to kill Arex, report him or blackmail him for his corruption to either leave his position or work for you.
With your new allies firmly established and Captain Arex dealt with, you join up with either Vette or Kaliyo to assault the Scions' fortress. Without Arex and his skytroopers to defend them, you are able to fight through the Scion forces and reach Heskal. Upon defeating him, you are given the choice to imprison or kill him, leaving your new ally to take control of the Old World.
Another newsreel with the same presenters rolls. The presenters discuss a gang war that had begun in the Old World district, followed by a video of Arcann alongside a woman he introduces as Knight-General Vendryl. Arcann apologises to the people of the Old World for this terrible tragedy and explains that Vendryll will be personally dealing with this new menace.
Speaking to Senya, either in her cell or the war council, will reveal that Vendryll was her second-in-command before her defection and that she is a ruthless individual completely devoted to Arcann.
So, the aim of this chapter is to provide a big choice that actually affects the story, this choice being whether you have Kaliyo or Vette as your advisor for the Old World gangs. There's an obvious light side/dark side binary with Vette's Robin Hood-esque antics obviously being nicer than Kaliyo's terrorism. However, I wanted to make it a bit more complex with Kaliyo actually being the more competent choice, pragmatically. While Vette has the favour of the civilian population, Kaliyo's gang are more competent combatants. This adds a different dynamic than just "Good choice" and "bad choice" but still allows that morality for those who wish to choose it.
The second notable choice is what you do with Arex. I think this is a fun one, since there isn't really a 'nice' answer, with you either handing him over to Arcann, blackmailing him to leave or work for you, or just straight up killing him. I like this as there isn't one 'right' answer.

Chapter 9: Mercy Mission

Koth asks to meet with you privately to talk. You oblige and he explains that he received a message from one of his contacts on Zakuul about a group of anti-Arcann refugees who are high profile targets looking to escape the planet. He planned to go pick them up but wanted to check with you first. You agree to go with him to meet these refugees.
The two of you take a shuttle to meet up with the refugees. There are 5 in total, all with different characters:
However, while down there, you receive word from Theron who has been tracking your movements, believing that he had to be careful after the disappearance of Marr and Satele. He informs you that he received intelligence that one of the refugees is a spy working for Arcaan. You are then tasked with speaking to each of the refugees in an attempt to discover who, if any, is the spy.
After speaking to all of them, you are given a decision: you can bring all of them back with you, accuse one character of being the spy or abandon them all. If you choose to leave the one you believe to be the spy or all of the refugees, you are given the choice to kill or imprison them. If you choose to imprison them, you can also have them tortured for information. Killing or torturing one or all of the refugees will negatively affect Koth's Alliance Influence to varying degrees, while allowing them to come to Asylum with you will positively affect it.
After returning to Asylum, we receive another news report. This time, Zalia is joined by a new host, Brennon Brosnee. The report explains that someone believed to be the Agent of Vitiate kidnapped many of Zakuul's greatest minds in a clear attack on Zakuulian society. Adorus Bell is not mentioned in the report.
This is what I'm calling a 'chill out chapter.' It's pretty short and doesn't have any combat but is more about player choice and character interactions. Your decisions in this chapter also have long-reaching effects as, in later chapters, Koth may leave the Alliance due to your choices here. If you do allow the spy onto Asylum, this will also affect the story later on.
I think, overall, this is a fun, short chapter which mixes things up from the longer ones that come before and after. It's fun, it's interesting. It's different and you don't even fight any Skytroopers! It would also be a good way to get a different perspective on Arcann's rule from the people of Zakuul themselves. On a technical side, this sort of 'bottle episode' type concept would allow the developers to spend more time on later chapters while still keeping a consistent schedule.

Chapter 10: The Lost Masters

Theron is finally able to decipher the information he took from the gangsters when you rescued him (see Chapter 6 for more info).
He explains that they are coordinates to a remote planet called Odessen within Wild Space. Lana adds that the planet seems to be unpopulated but shows all sorts of strange readings. She agrees that you should go investigate the landing coordinates with Theron.
When you land on Odessen, you find it to be a lush, fertile and wild planet. However, you also find a campsite and begin to investigate. You are met by Satele who explains that they had been awaiting your arrival. She invites the two of you to sit down and talk. As you do, she explains that she and Darth Marr had sensed a strong dark side presence on Odessen and had come to investigate. What they found was an entire compound controlled by the followers of Vitiate, hoping to revive him.
The two of them realised at this point that Vitiate's forces were more numerous and covert than either of them had believed, and resolved to stay on Odessen until the compound could be destroyed. Satele explains that they had learnt from their experiences with the Revanites and agreed that they could not trust even those in the Alliance in case it was compromised. However, Satele did leave a clue, saying that she knew Theron would be able to decipher it and bring you here. When you ask of Marr's location, Satele explains that they take turns keeping watch before noting that he should have been back by now. Suddenly, the camp is attacked by dark side beasts and the three of you fight them off. Once they're defeated, Satele states that Marr should have seen them coming and that he must be in danger. You head into the forest with her, leaving Theron to protect the ship.
You travel with Satele through the jungle of Odessen to reach the compound, fighting through local wildlife as well as mutated Sith beasts. As you approach, Satele suggests you sneak in while she distracts the cultists. You agree and Satele splits off from you as you make your way into the compound that seems like a fortress. You fight through a mixture of sith beasts and cultists loyal to Vitiate, mostly Sith. As you go, you hear Darth Marr and approach his location. A member of the (former) Emperor's Hand, Servant 11, is interrogating an unmasked and kneeling Marr who refuses to give up any information on Satele, surrounded by members of the Emperor's Guard. As you enter, Marr takes the chance to attack the guards, taking one of their pikes and impaling them upon it. He grabs his mask and lightsaber before the two of you fight the rest of the Emperor's Guards together until only Servant 11 is left. Marr starts interrogating Servant 11 on the cult's activities with you being able to act as the 'good cop' to his bad cop or reinforce Marr's bloodthirst.. Servant 11 smugly declares that there are plans in motion that will bring a new era of Vitiate's power. Marr then kills Servant 11.
Sidenote: I think this scene could go a couple of ways. We could finally get a Darth Marr face reveal or the scene could be shot in such a way that we never actually see his face until he retrieves the mask and puts it back on. I prefer the second because I just think it's a really fun concept for the scene.
You plan to escape with Marr but he refuses, stating that all remnants of the Emperor's filth must be cleansed from this place. You agree and travel with him, killing more cultists and making your way to a large room with a strange Sith holocron on it. Marr informs you that the holocron is a Reliquary, an artifact containing a fraction of Vitiate's presence and an item of Sith Sorcery. He explains that it absorbs the Force released by beings as they die and would eventually resurrect Vitiate if given the chance. With this said, Marr draws his lightsaber and impales the Reliquary, causing purple energy to blast out from within. The two of you then meet up with Satele and Theron to talk.
You discuss with the three of them on whether Satele and Marr should return to the Alliance. Satele agrees to join you but Marr states that he must ensure that the cult is completely destroyed before returning. You agree and leave the planet with Satele and Theron.
You return to Asylum and get the usual newsreel. However, since you haven't actually done anything that they know of, the news is instead about preparation for an upcoming event: Liberty Day, a yearly day of celebration in honour of Valkorion's forces defeating Vitiate and his Sith long ago. The two hosts discuss what Emperor Arcann could be planning for this year's Liberty Day, which would be happening in the coming months, and point out that the increased security provided by the Knights and Skytroopers will stop the Agents of Vitiate from stopping such an auspicious occasion.
So, I wanted to do a few things in this chapter: Firstly, I wanted to bring back Satele and Marr and, with Marr not being dead in my version, have them both do some cool stuff and show off a bit. In fact, my sequence with Marr is heavily based on his moment in the original story, shortly before he gets fucking gutted. I also wanted to be a bit fan-servicey with Marr's whole mask thing and I really love the idea that we never actually see him unmasked. On a slight tangent, I've just realised that, in the original expansion, Marr is just… left in his armour after being captured. Surely if you wake someone prisoner, you'd take their badass, technologically advanced battle armour off them, right? I suppose it's because they wanted him to be recognisable as Darth Marr still but it seems strange, not only from a literal point of view but a metaphorical one too. Stripping Marr of his armour signifies that he isn't some unstoppable machine but a man, and when he then fights back and kills Valkorion/Vitiate's minions, (in either version of the story) it shows that, as a man, he is able to overcome these greater odds.
I'd also want there to be some honest interactions between Theron and Satele, maybe having Satele actually show pride in Theron and what he's become. In the original story, I don't think Theron even meets her in these expansions, since you go to see her alone and then she just leaves. It honestly is just bizarre to me that you have two characters who are mother and son with a strained relationship (in an expansion that revolves very heavily about family ties, none-the-less) and they never interact. I think having Satele and Theron repair their relationship a bit would be good story progression and an interesting route for both their characters, especially if Satele is going a bit AWOL from the Jedi teachings, which she already was in the original version.
Secondly, I wanted to implement the Cult of Vitiate as antagonists. Since Valkorion isn't just Vitiate in a meat suit in this version, he should definitely have his own thing going. I also want this to be more of a thing later on, so I think it's good to plant the seed here.
Thirdly, I wanted to introduce Odessen as a location. Asylum being the home of the Alliance gives us a chance to make Odessen a little more interesting than 'the place you decided to just make a base'. Again, this will come back later in the story.
Lastly, I think this newsreel is a fun one. It's something light-hearted and unrelated to you and has the irony of Arcann pushing this 'Liberty Day' when he has taken over the entire Galaxy.

Chapter 11: Twists of Fate

With Satele back in the Alliance, things are running more smoothly. She calls you to join her to talk. When you meet with her, she is alone in the council room. She asks you to join her on a walk.
Satele explains that she has some errands to run on the station and asks you to help. Regardless of your answer, she begins leading you deeper into the underbelly of the station to meet a friend of hers. Before you reach your target, you are pickpocketed by a young boy who runs into a back alley. The two of you follow the thief and catch him. He explains that he has to steal in order to make enough money to feed himself and his sister and that if he doesn't return with something, his boss will throw them out. You are then given a choice to take your credits back, kill the boy or recruit him to the Alliance. Whichever choice you choose, the boy pleads with you to save his sister who is being held by a gang known as the Engineers. Satele admits that the Engineers have caused problems for the Alliance in the past, but are the only ones able to keep Asylum running. You decide to go and deal with them.
As you make your way down into the lower levels of Asylum, you are split off from Satele and are contacted by Valkorion once again. He apologises for possessing you and explains that doing so used up his energy and he was forced to retreat into your subconscious to recover. The two of you discuss the Alliance and your plans for after Arcann is defeated. Valkorion admits that he doesn't know if he will remain in your mind forever or eventually fade away. As the two of you talk, you arrive within the Engineers' territory. You fight your way through until you reach the Engine Room which is set out like a treasury.
In the middle of the room is a rotund twi'lek man, Ral Ekval, sitting on a throne made up of scrap metal. He sends his goons to attack you and you fight them off. You then speak to Ral, who smugly explains that only his people can run Asylum. Without him, the station would fall from orbit and be sucked into the gas giant. You then have a choice:
Whichever you choose, Satele makes her way inside with Alliance back-up to help you. If you chose to kill or imprison Ral, Satele notes that it will be hard to find anyone who could replace him and that she would ask Hylo to talk to her contacts. As this happens, you get an emergency broadcast from Theron, stating that Koth and the Gravestone have gone missing and have been spotted in the Spire.
You return to the Alliance base to meet with the War Council, deciding that a major assault would be too costly at this point. Instead, you will lead a small strike team into the Spire to retrieve Koth and the Gravestone. At this point, you're able to choose from the companions you have acquired to join you on the mission by performing different tasks:
Depending on who you pick to lead the distraction team, you gain Alliance Influence with the Republic, the Underworld or the Empire.
With the positions set, you start your assault, landing within the Old World and fighting your way through to an elevator that leads up into the Spire. This is the first time you get to actually see the splendors of the Spire but it doesn't last long as alarms start to blare out. As you go, you receive reports from the other members of your team, with SCORPIO providing overviews on security movements and Jorgan/Vette/Kaliyo/Pyron and Hylo providing updates on their conflict.
You make your way through the streets of the Spire, fighting through Skytroopers as you approach the palace. You fight through knights as you make your way through the palace towards the throne room. You reach the throne room where you are met by Arcann, alongside a group of Knights. You also see Vaylin, standing at her brother's side and Koth in manacles. Depending on whether Koth's Alliance Influence score is above or below a certain amount (heavily affected by your choices within Chapter 9 but also affected by other choices within the story), Koth will either have been captured while trying to pick up more refugees or he will have betrayed you, attempting to join forces with Arcann, who believes him to be a spy and had him locked up. Either way, you speak with Arcann, who seems strange. He is angered by your presence, claiming that you were an agent of Vitiate come to destroy him. He demands the Knights execute you and draws his own lightsaber, ready to fight. If you have Senya with you, she will attempt to talk him out of it, but this only enrages him further as he claims you have turned his mother to the darkness. You ready yourself for a fight, but before you can, Vaylin suddenly screams and the entire room begins to shake and shudder, windows smashing and the thin bridge to the throne collapsing, taking some of the knights with it. The throne room begins to fall apart and you are forced to retreat, bringing Koth with you.
You receive confirmation that the others have captured the Gravestone and you make your way towards the ship. You get onboard the Gravestone with your companion and Koth while Hylo takes off, escaping Zakuul. No one seems to know the cause of the sudden damage to the throne room.
With the danger passed, you're able to turn your attention to Koth. Regardless of whether he betrayed you or simply got captured, you're given the choice to let him go, imprison him or kill him. If you let him go after he betrays you, he agrees to exile himself. Otherwise, he will return to the Alliance. You return to Asylum and speak with the War Council who have mixed feelings. While some are happy about the victory, however minor, others believe that this will only harden Arcann's resolve.
This is where Part 4 will end, since I've already massively surpassed my 5000ish word limit for these posts. I felt like this worked as a pretty good 'midpoint' for the story. The theme of this section of Chapters is about building up the Alliance into a better fighting force. The next section will delve into deconstructing Arcann's powerbase some more and then getting to the grand finale. Laughably, I thought I could get away with 4 parts when I started writing all this but that clearly isn't the case.
This last chapter is fun because it gets you your first real look at Arcann since the start and you get to see his deterioration as he becomes more paranoid and cruel. It also includes the first seeds of Vaylin's storyline. I've also included a trope I really enjoyed when it was used in the class stories where each of your allies is doing something, with the twist of you picking and choosing for a few roles. There's also the whole bit with the Engineers which is more throwaway, but I thought some light adventure would be fun and I felt like I should bring Valkorion back for a bit. I've already gone on long enough though, so I'll finish with a TL;DR.

TL;DR

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